Aims: Here, we investigate the dynamical effects produced by different mechanisms that can explain the radial and vertical components of these extended kinematic maps, including a decomposition of bending and breathing of the vertical components. This paper as a whole tries to be a compendium of different dynamical mechanisms whose predictions can be compared to the kinematic maps.
Methods: Using analytical methods or simulations, we are able to predict the main dynamical factors and compare them to the predictions of the extended kinematic maps of Gaia-DR2.
Results: The gravitational influence of Galactic components that are different from the disk, such as the long bar or bulge, the spiral arms, or a tidal interaction with Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, may explain some features of the velocity maps, especially in the inner parts of the disk. However, they are not sufficient in explaining the most conspicuous gradients in the outer disk. Vertical motions might be dominated by external perturbations or mergers, although a minor component may be due to a warp whose amplitude evolves with time. Here, we show with two different methods, which analyze the dispersion of velocities, that the mass distribution of the disk is flared. Despite these partial explanations, the main observed features can only be explained in terms of out-of-equilibrium models, which are either due to external perturbers or to the fact that the disk has not had time to reach equilibrium since its formation.
Le dimissioni di Fioramonti sono incentrate sull’entità del finanziamento: ma il nesso tra istruzione e sviluppo economico dovrebbe essere la questione cruciale, il rospo, da mettere al centro dell’agenda politica, che separa due visioni economiche e sociali completamente diverse e che invece continua ad essere assente.
By Francesco Sylos Labini and Martín López Corredoira .
This year the committee of the Nobel Prize in Physics has gifted the humanity with a poetic touch: “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019 was awarded for one half to
James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology” and for the other half to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”. We might discuss how much outstanding is the latter contribution to Physics, but at least we precisely know which discovery is awarded. On the other hand, we cannot say the same about the particular discovery of cosmology awarded and it does not seem to fulfill Alfred Nobel’s will, which was to endow “prizes to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind”.
During the confrence Diversity in the Local Universe I had the occasion to vist two famous astrophysical observatories.
Al termine della Settimana della Scienza il mondo accademico si prepara alla notte europea dei ricercatori. Un’occasione per divulgare il sapere scientifico e avvicinare l’opinione pubblica. Parla Francesco Sylos Labini, astrofisico